A beach with wind turbines


Our research, shaped and conducted by a broad range of collaborators, is addressing the major challenges in critical infrastructure resilience.

Learning from doing then sharing our learning

A recent special issue of Environment Systems and Decisions has been published which includes updated versions of papers originally commissioned by the Resilience Shift. More.

The reports on this page explain what we learnt during our first year, which focused on developing understanding of how resilience is currently seen in engineering practice. This provides us with a starting point, or baseline, helping us to plan where we are going next in order to make our critical infrastructure more resilient – what we call the Resilience Shift.

Photo by Olia Gozha on Unsplash


An engineering curriculum for resilience and complex systems thinking

research publications to downloadAuthors: Roland Kupers and Mark Foden

Date: 15 June 2017

This report assumes that resilience engineering must embrace the science of complex systems. It proposes the integration of resilience engineering into tertiary educational curricula and highlights the need for capacity building for engineering practitioners. Watch this summary video.

Engineering resilience in the digital urban landscape

research publications to downloadAuthors: Martijn Neef, Hanneke Duijnhoven, Anna Herder, Tom van Schie

Date: 15 June 2017

This report attempts to provide a strategic approach to urban cyber resilience, which seems to be a huge potential issue confronting urban areas now and into the future.

Contributions of green infrastructure to urban resilience

research publications to downloadAuthors: Chad Staddon, Laura de Vito, Adriana Zuniga-Teran, Yolandi Schoeman, Aimee Hart, and Giles Booth

Date: 30 June 2017

This proposal provides a comprehensive overview of green infrastructure (particularly related to stormwater and drainage) and outlines how a more holistic and integrated approach to green infrastructure could be applied, based on a distillation of learnings globally and by the authors determining the most important characteristics. The authors focus on community engagement as a fundamental principle for the sustainability of resilient green infrastructure.

Towards an operational paradigm for engineering resilience of interdependent infrastructure systems

research publications to downloadAuthors: Nader Naderpajouh, David Yu, Daniel P. Aldrich, Igor Linkov

Date: 15 June 2017

The research proposes an operational paradigm* for Resilience Engineering based on applying institutional theory (the role of institutions and institutional arrangements) to the management of interdependent infrastructure systems. The main basis of the report is the presentation of a conceptual framework involving regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive elements of institutional arrangements.

*By “operational paradigm,” the authors mean establishing detailed and practical knowledge on how to implement resilience-enhancing principles in practice and how to refine the principles themselves.

Exploring resilience in aviation and marine transport – and how human factors can help

research publications to downloadAuthors: Douglas Owen, Dr. Simon Gill, Dr. Hazel Courtney, Prof. Nick McDonald, Dr. Paul Liston, Dr. Maria Carrera

Date: 15 June 2017

The report draws on learning from the application of human factor (HF) theory to inform on the implementation of resilience engineering for socio-technical infrastructure in maritime and aviation. It recommends the systematic inclusion of HF at every stage of resilience implementation. The report presents HF analysis as a means of capturing life-cycle considerations - i.e. how will the asset perform in-use?

Resilience in water

research publications to downloadAuthors: Ann Cousins, Louise Ellis, Sophie England, Ian Gray, Hamish Hay, Steven Johnson, Catherine Wenger

Date: 15 June 2017

The report investigates dynamic performance based design approaches, tools and processes to value resilience, integrated systems approaches and transformative technologies of eight case studies in the water sector. The report concludes with opportunities to move towards the implementation of resilience engineering through 'social and cognitive', 'normative', 'informative' and 'regulative' improvements.

Flood Resilience: Consolidating knowledge between and within critical infrastructure sectors

research publications to downloadAuthors: Ant Parsons, Dr. Jonathan Pearson, Prof. Martin Mayfield, Dr. Guiliano Punzo, Dr. Phil Collins, Dr. Geoff Brighty, Dr. Giovanni Cuomo, Simon Jeavons

Date: 15 June 2017

The report investigates integrated system thinking, dynamic performance based design and education to establish a baseline of current state-of-the-art resilience and risk management concepts with respect to managing floods.

Resilient foundation through systems thinking

research publications to downloadAuthors: Richard Look and Caroline Field

Date: 16 June 2017

This study provides suggestions on what a framework for developing resilience-based requirements and management structures. This is based on current best practice in Systems Engineering, and applicable to a range of sectors and technologies. The basis is to: Allow requirements to be articulated in a way which provides clear objectives and enables innovative solutions; Enable an organisation to establish its risk tolerance in such a manner that can be used to develop a platform for change; maintain line of sight back to the organisational values. The concept presented is that resilience principles can be useful for diagnosing systems. The findings summarise current activities and tools used in relation to building resilience of critical infrastructure.

Resilience Return on Investment (RROI)

research publications to downloadAuthors: Peter J. Hall, Colin Carter, Eric C. Bill, Mark O’Connor, Dr. Murray C. Simpson

Date: 30 June 2017

This report aims to explore the various means in which to quantitatively assess the value of the additional capital costs incurred to add resilience to infrastructure projects. The analysis focuses on the concept of ‘Resilience Return on Investment’ (RROI) within infrastructure projects – specifically, reviewing approaches to quantify the value of resilience engineering. Infrastructure clients are increasingly asking ‘what is the value of integrating resilience into our infrastructure projects’ and this scoping study attempts to start defining that value.

Critical Infrastructure Resilience: Understanding the Landscape

research publications to downloadAuthors: Juliet Mian, Jo da Silva, Nancy Kete, Oliver Pritchard, Xavier Aldea Borruel, Will Goode

Revised 01 October 2018

Last year, as part of our work to set up the Resilience Shift, we undertook a series of one-to-one interviews, focus group sessions and a global survey with Arup members.

The Resilience Shift's Executive Director, Dr Nancy Kete, said, "The Arup survey has taught us a lot about the 'state-of-the-practice' in design and engineering for resilience and we would like to thank everyone at Arup and elsewhere who contributed to this".

We have brought together the many diverse and informative responses into this report which collates findings from consultations (surveys, interviews and focus groups), reviews and desk studies, in order to define the ‘baseline’ of critical infrastructure resilience in practice.

Understanding infrastructure resilience in practice: A methodology

research publications to downloadAuthors: Oliver Pritchard, Juliet Mian

Date: 01 February 2018

During the first year of the RS, as part of an agenda setting stage, we consulted with Arup to get views on current practice in critical infrastructure resilience. This short note describes how we approached the Arup consultation. We are hoping that others will be inspired to replicate, and improve on, our approach within their own organisations.

A review of resilience in interdependent transport, energy and water systems

research publications to downloadAuthors: Adrian Hickford, Simon Blainey, Alejandro Ortega Hortelano, Raghav Pant

Date: 26 February 2017

A desk-based review that examines definitions, methodologies and current practice relating to resilience engineering and performance-based engineering in the energy, transport and water infrastructure sectors. An array of national and international programmes are also briefly discussed. The report identifies a gap in Resilience Engineering theory and practice, where much research currently focuses on theory.